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Die Europäische Union ist ein Staatenverbund aus 27 europäischen Ländern. Außerhalb des geographischen Europas umfasst die EU Zypern und einige Überseegebiete. Sie hat insgesamt mehr als eine halbe Milliarde Einwohner.

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Toughening Financial Sanctions on Russia

Enforcing Energy Sanctions and Reducing Shadow Reserves Effectively

Financial sanctions are key in enforcing restrictions on Russian energy exports – in particular the G7/EU oil price cap regime –, due to financial institutions’ critical role in cross-border transactions. While the energy sanctions regime is having an impact on export earnings and budget revenues, evidence for potentially widespread violations is also emerging. Moreover, favorable external dynamics have allowed Russia to accumulate substantial assets abroad – “shadow reserves” –, which need to be kept out of reach of the regime.

Autor*in/nen
Dr. Guntram Wolff
Benjamin Hilgenstock
Elina Ribakova
Policy Brief

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