German Council on Foreign Relations

Strict and Uniform: Improving EU Sanctions Enforcement

For as long as the EU has been using sanctions as a foreign policy instrument, countering violations has been a challenge. With the EU rapidly expanding the breadth and depth of its sanctions, its ­institutions and member states must find ways to ensure stricter and more uniform enforcement to deter violations, enhance efficiency, and ensure a more level playing field for economic actors. The stakes are high: the success of the EU’s response to Russia’s military aggression hinges largely on effective sanctions, and the long-term legitimacy of the tool itself depends on its enforcement.

Dr. Kim B. Olsen
Simon Fasterkjær Kjeldsen
Policy Brief

Filling Europe’s Geopolitical Vacuum

The European Political Community is being launched today at a summit of 44 states in Prague without a clear concept of what it is for. There is a chance now, however, for Germany to finally show leadership and broker a deal between France and Poland to move the EU forward.

Creation date

The Battle for Lyman

Ukraine to liberate a key railway hub in the Donetsk region
Dr. András Rácz
Online Commentary

Annalena Baerbock’s Fighting Spirit

As foreign minister, the leading Green has given German foreign policy a fresh voice. She has been pushing Chancellor Olaf Scholz to do more to support Ukraine with weapons and even seems not to have given up on the country’s top job.

Berlin Cable
Creation date
Dossier EN: Russia's War Against Ukraine
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Dossier: Russia’s War Against Ukraine

Russia’s attack on Ukraine on February 24, violating international law, shocked the global community and brought war to Europe – along with fears of a nuclear escalation. Europe and its allies are responding with tough sanctions against Russia in the areas of finance, energy, and technology. In a sudden change of course, the German government has approved arms deliveries that it had previously rejected. While international appeals for a ceasefire are being made to Russia’s President Vladimir Putin, one thing is already clear: the European security order as we knew it no longer exists. The German government’s radical U-turn in security and defense policy is only one facet of that.

This dossier provides an overview of DGAP’s diverse expertise and activities on the conflict. See below for statements on current developments, in-depth analyses on how it could have come to this, and recommendations for action to the German government, as well as numerous interviews and high-profile discussion panels.

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