Recent publications

Auf dem Weg zu einer nachhaltigeren Weltwirtschaft

Potenziale und Grenzen eines Klimaclubs und weiterer plurilateraler Initiativen

Klimawandel, Verlust der biologischen Vielfalt und Pandemien. Zudem zunehmende wirtschaftliche Ungleichheiten und Armut, hohe Schulden, ein immer engerer finanzieller Spielraum sowie ein instabiles Finanzsystem und ein zunehmend konfliktreiches geopolitisches und geoökonomisches Umfeld. Die Welt kämpft mit einer Reihe grundlegender, langfristiger, systemischer Herausforderungen, die zusammen eine „globale Polykrise“ bilden. Angesichts der Ernsthaftigkeit der Lage ist „business as usual“ keine Option. 


Dr. Claudia Schmucker
Dr. Stormy-Annika Mildner
Policy Brief

Time to Deliver

What the Loss and Damage Fund Needs to Bring to the Most Vulnerable
Mechthild Becker
Dr. Kira Vinke



Past events


Business-As-Usual Scenario

The Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario describes the development of the concentration of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere under the assumption that no further efforts to reduce emissions will be made. It is used in climate models to examine inaction in the areas of climate politics, social behavior, and technological progress and the consequences this inaction will have for climate impacts that will affect societies and natural systems in the future.

Climate Foreign Policy

Climate foreign policy encompasses the issue areas of climate protection, adaptation, prevention, and management of climate-related crises, in which national interests converge or conflict with those of other countries.

Climate Justice

Climate Justice is a normative concept that considers man-made climate change as an ethical and social problem. It consists of two main aspects: justice in terms of responsibility for climate change and justice in terms of the impacts of climate change. Populations in poor countries are disproportionately affected by climate impacts.

Climate Migration

Climate migration or climate-induced migration describes the permanent or temporary change of location of an individual or group of people due to environmental changes caused by global warming.

Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)

The principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) establishes the common governmental responsibility for anthropogenic climate change and the environmental destruction associated with it. It acknowledges that responsibility among countries is unequally distributed due to their differing contributions to the causes of climate change and their varying economic capacities.


In international criminal law as well as in European and national criminal law, the term “ecocide” refers to criminal liability for massive damage to or the destruction of ecosystems by human actions.

Energy Security

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), “energy security” is defined as the “uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price.”

Green Industrial Policy

Industrial policy becomes green when decarbonized economic activity and respect for other planetary boundaries become government objectives that are as important as social welfare. Green industrial policy is now at the top of the political agenda in many countries because it is essential for addressing those socio-environmental challenges that markets do not usually solve alone.


Amid multiple crises and slow progress on climate protection, hope is elusive. Yet hope is a key ingredient in climate foreign policy.

Intergenerational Justice

The concept of Intergenerational Justice is characterized by the question of what kind of world those living today will leave to their children and grandchildren. According to this concept, it is essential that different generations have an equal level of opportunity and quality of life, and that material resources are distributed equitably across them.

Just Energy Transition Partnerships

Just Energy Transition Partnerships (JETPs) are a new plurilateral structure for accelerating the phase-out of fossil fuels. These intergovernmental partnerships coordinate financial resources and technical assistance from countries in the Global North to a recipient country to help it in this regard. To date, JETPs have targeted emerging economies that produce and consume coal on a large scale.

Loss and Damage

Climate-related Loss and Damage describes the negative economic, cultural, and societal consequences of climate change that have already occurred. This concept is based on the realization that no amount of mitigation and adaptation can prevent all the negative effects of climate change. Indeed, some irreversible losses have already occurred and would increase rapidly, particularly if global warming rises more than 1.5°C above preindustrial levels.

National Adaptation Plans (NAPs)

“National Adaptation Plans” (NAPs) are developed by parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Work on them began in 2010 at COP16 in Cancun as part of a diplomatic process known as the Cancun Adaptation Framework.

Negative Emissions

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines negative emissions as the “removal of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere by deliberate human activities, i.e., in addition to the removal that would occur via natural carbon cycle processes.”

Phase Down and Phase Out of Fossil Fuels

The term “Phase Down” refers to structured reduction in the use of fossil fuels, while “Phase Out” refers to its complete cessation. Fossil energy is produced by burning fossil fuels – primarily coal, oil, and natural gas – which releases greenhouse gases such as CO2.

Planetary Boundaries

The concept of planetary boundaries was first introduced in 2009. It describes the resilience of our planet and analyzes human influence on various parts of the Earth system.

Santiago Network

The Santiago Network for Loss and Damage is an association of various international organizations, networks, initiatives, and institutions aiming to address and combat losses and damages caused by climate change.

Subsidy Reduction

Here, the term “subsidy” refers to financial contributions or support provided to produce, process, sell, or consume fossil fuels.

Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM)

For years, small island states in the Pacific and other nations particularly affected by climate change had demanded support for addressing climate-related damages and losses. As a result, the “Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with the impacts of climate change” (WIM) was established as an institution under the UNFCCC in November 2013.

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