France and Germany are pushing rival models for defence co-operation



“A recent study by Britain’s IISS and Germany’s DGAP think-tanks found that the EU would struggle to meet most of the ambitions implied by its own common security and defence policy, itself a modest document. It would be out of its depth altogether if it faced simultaneous crises or if Britain, which makes up a quarter of the bloc’s defence spending, stayed away. Bigger fights, such as the air campaign against Libya in 2011, are out of the question.”

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